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Mandaeism or Mandaeanism Mandaic: Mandaeism has historically been practised primarily around the lower Euphrates and Tigris and the rivers that surround the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, part of southern Iraq and Khuzestan Province in Iran.

There are thought to be between 60, and 70, Mandaeans worldwide, [1] and until the Iraq waralmost all of them lived in Iraq.

There has been a much smaller influx into Syria and Jordan, with smaller populations in Sweden, Australia, the United States, and other Western countries.

The Mandaeans have remained separate and intensely private—reports of them and of their religion have come primarily from outsiders, particularly from the Orientalists J.

An Anglican vicar, Rev. On the basis of cognates in other Aramaic dialects, Semiticists such as Mark Lidzbarski and Rudolf Macuch have translated the term mandafrom which Mandaiia derives, as “knowledge” cf.

This etymology suggests that the Mandaeans may well be the only sect from late Antiquity to identify themselves explicitly as Gnostics. Certainly, the Mandaean diyqnet shares much with the ensemble of sects labelled as Gnostics, which date to the 1st century AD and the following centuries; however, there are crucial differences, particularly in the realm of the behavioral ethics of the laity.

Note diynet this identification results largely from western scholarship, and was not current in the Mandaean community itself until comparatively recently. Occasionally, Mandaeans are called Christians of Saint John, based upon preliminary reports made by members of the Discalced Carmelite mission in Basra during the 16th century.

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The evidence about Mandaean history has been almost entirely confined to some of the Mandaen religious literature. Arab authors tell about Harranian Sabians. A Christian writer said that they have adopted the name “Sabians” in order to use the protection offered by Islam to the ‘” people of the book “‘, the true ‘Sabians’ or Sabba, of the marshes of Lower Iraq.

Al-Biruni writing at the beginning of the eleventh century A. Some scholars hold that the Sabians mentioned in the Qur’an are those currently referred to as Mandaeanswhile others contend that the etymology of the root word ‘Sabi’un’ points to origins either in the Syriac or Mandaic word ‘Sabian’, and suggest that the Mandaean religion originated with Sabeans who came under the influence of early Hellenic Sabian missionariesbut preferred their own priesthood.

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He described them as follows:. Many of them came to me and begged me insistently to go and visit them. They are a very simple people and they claim to possess a secret law of God, which they preserve in beautiful books. Their writing is a sort of middle way between Syriac and Arabic. They detest Abraham because of circumcision and they venerate John the Baptist above all. They live only near a few rivers in the desert.

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ilmihalo These Mandaean seemed to be willing to obey the Catholic Church. They diywnet and used the seven Catholic sacraments and the related ceremonies in their lives. Gnosticism Mandaeism, as the religion of the Mandaean people, is based more on a common heritage than on any set of religious creeds and doctrines.

A basic guide to Mandaean theology does not exist. The corpus of Mandaean literature, though quite large, covers topics such as eschatologythe knowledge of Godand the afterlife only in an unsystematic manner, and, apart from the priesthood, is known only to a few laypeople.

Drower, the Mandaean Gnosis diyaney characterized by nine features, which appear in various forms in other gnostic sects: Mandaeans believe in marriage and procreation, and in the importance of leading an ethical and moral lifestyle in this world, placing a high priority upon family life. Consequently, Mandaeans do not practice celibacy or asceticism.


Mandaeans will, however, abstain from strong drink and red meat.

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While they agree with other diyaanet sects that the world is a prison governed by the planetary archonsthey do not dihanet it as a cruel and inhospitable one. By consulting the colophons in the Left Ginza, Jorunn J. Buckley has identified an uninterrupted chain of copyists to the late 2nd or early 3rd c.

AD, and settled within the Arsacid empire. Although the Ginza continued to evolve under the rule of the Sassanians and the Islamic empires, few textual traditions can jlmihali claim to such extensive continuity. Drower much of it is found here and here. Finally, there are some pre-Muslim artifacts which contain Mandaean writings and inscriptions, such as some Aramaic incantation bowls.

The language in which the Mandaean religious literature was originally composed is known as Mandaicand is a member of the Aramaic family of dialects. It is written in a cursive variant of the Ilmihxli chancellory script. The majority of Mandaean lay people do not speak this language, though some members of the Mandaean community resident in Iran ca.

As noted above under Mandaean Beliefs Mandaean theology is not systematic. There is no one single authoritative account of the creation diyaent the cosmos, but rather a series of several accounts. Some scholars, such as Edmondo Lupieri, [8] maintain that comparison of these different accounts ilmihaki reveal the diverse religious influences upon which the Mandaeans have drawn and the ways in which the Mandaean religion has evolved over time.

In contrast with the religious texts of the ddiyanet Gnostic sects formerly found in Syria and Egypt, the earliest Mandaean diyanst texts suggest a more strictly dualistic theology, typical of other Iranian religions such as DiyahetZurvanismManichaeismand the teachings of Mazdak.

In these texts, instead of a large pleromathere is a discrete division between light and darkness. The ruler of darkness is called Ptahil similar to the Gnostic Demiurgeand the originator of the light i. God is only known as “the great first Life from the worlds of light, the sublime one that stands above all works”. When this being emanatedother spiritual beings became increasingly corrupted, and they and their ruler Ptahil created our world.

The similarity between the name Ptahil and the Egyptian Ptah should also be noted—the Mandaeans believe that they were resident in Egypt for a while. The issue is further complicated by the fact that Ptahil alone does not constitute the demiurge but only fills that role insofar as he is the creator of our world. Rather, Ptahil is the lowest of a group of three “demiurgic” beings, the other two being Yushamin a. Abathur’s demiurgic role consists of his sitting in judgment upon the souls of mortals.

Ilmihapi role of Yushamin, the senior being, is more obscure; wanting to create a world of his own, he was severely punished for opposing the King of Light. Mandaeans recognize several prophets. Yahya ibn Zakariyyaknown by Christians as John the Baptistis accorded a special status, higher than his role in Christianity and Islam.

Mandaeans do not consider John to be the founder diyannet their religion but revere him as one of their greatest teachers, tracing their beliefs back to Adam. The Mandaic word k a dabahowever, might be interpreted as being derived from either of two roots: This seems to be a folk etymology without support in the Mandaean texts.

The latter three they consider to be their direct ancestors.

There is a strict division between Mandaean laity and the priests. Drower The Secret Adamp. The contemporary priesthood can trace its immediate origins to the first half of the 19 th century. Inan outbreak of cholera devastated the region and eliminated most if not all of the Mandaean religious authorities.

In there were two dozen Mandaean priests in the world, according to the Associated Press. According to Sidra d-Yahia 54, Jerusalem is “the stronghold that Adunay built However, Yahya John the Baptistan important figure in the religion, is said to have been born there. Later on, in the days of Pontius Pilateit states that the good spirit Anush Utra went there, healed the sick and worked miracles, and made converts, confronting Jesus whom they consider a false prophet and refuting his arguments; but its inhabitants opposed him and persecuted the converts, of whom were killed GR Miriai, a Jewish princess, was converted, and fled to the shores of the Euphrates.

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This angered Anush Utra, who received permission from God to destroy Jerusalem and the temple, smash the “seven columns,” and slay the Jews who lived there, after bringing out the remaining “believers. In the Abahatan Qadmaiia prayer, repeated during ilmihxli of the dead, the Mandaeans invoke blessings upon the who were killed or forced out of Jerusalem:. According to the Fihrist of ibn al-NadimManithe founder of Manichaeismwas brought up within the Elkasaites Elcesaites or Elchasaite sect.

The Elkasaites were ilmiyali Christian baptismal sect which may have been related to the Mandaeans. The members of this sect, like the Mandaeans, wore white and performed baptisms. Mani later left the Elkasaites to found his own religion. This would imply that Mani had access diysnet Mandaean religious literature. Ibn al-Nadim also mentions a group called the Mughtasila”the self-ablutionists”, who may be identified with one or the other of these groups.

Whether groups such as the Elkasaites, the Mughtasila, the Nasoraeans, and the Diaynet can be identified with the Mandaeans or one another is a difficult question. While it seems certain that a number of distinct groups are intended by these names, the nature of these sects and the connections between them are less than clear. The prewar Iraqi Mandaean community was centered around Baghdad. Most Iraqi Mandaeans have fled the country in the face of this violence, and the Mandaean community in Iraq faces extinction.

There are small Mandaean diaspora populations in Sweden c. The contemporary status of the Mandaeans has prompted a number of American intellectuals and civil rights activists to call for their government to extend refugee status to the community.

InThe New York Times ran an op-ed piece in which Swarthmore professor Nathaniel Deutsch called for the Bush administration to take immediate action to preserve the community:. Since then around have entered the US. In Iran the Gozinesh Law passed in has the effect of prohibiting Mandaeans from fully participating in civil life. This law and other gozinesh provisions make access to employment, education, and a range of other areas conditional upon a rigorous ideological screening, the principal prerequisite for which is devotion to the tenets of Islam.

Games Movies TV Wikis. Sign In Don’t have an account? Nathaniel Deutsch, professor of religion, Swarthmore College. International Herald TribuneApril 9, Ginza RbaQolusta. Mandaic Arabic and Persian are also spoken. At the same time the ignorant or semi-ignorant laity are called ‘Mandaeans’, Mandaiia —’gnostics’. When a man becomes a priest he leaves ‘Mandaeanism’ and enters tarmiduta’priesthood’.

Those priests who came forth from the city of Jerusalem, the city of this masiqta and dukhranaa forgiveness of sins may there be for them. This extinction in the making has simply been another unfortunate and entirely unintended consequence of our invasion of Iraq—though that will be of little comfort to the Mandeans, whose 2,year-old culture is in grave danger of disappearing from the face of the earth. When American forces invaded inthere were probably 60, Mandeans in Iraq; today, fewer than 5, remain.

Of the mere Iraqi refugees who were allowed into the United States from April to Aprilonly a few were Mandeans.